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Grupo Acción Formadora

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Nikifor Solovyov
Nikifor Solovyov

Design Of Steel Structures To Eurocodes __TOP__



EN Eurocode 3 is wider in scope than most of the other design EN Eurocodes due to the diversity of steel structures, the need to cover both bolted and welded joints and the possible slenderness of construction. EN 1993 has about 20 parts covering common rules, fire design, bridges, buildings, tanks, silos, pipelined piling, crane supported structures, towers and masts, chimneys, etc.




Design of Steel Structures to Eurocodes



This textbook describes the rules for the design of steel and composite building structures according to Eurocodes, covering the structure as a whole, as well as the design of individual structural components and connections. It addresses the following topics: the basis of design in the Eurocodes framework; the loads applied to building structures; the load combinations for the various limit states of design and the main steel properties and steel fabrication methods; the models and methods of structural analysis in combination with the structural imperfections and the cross-section classification according to compactness; the cross-section resistances when subjected to axial and shear forces, bending or torsional moments and to combinations of the above; component design and more specifically the design of components sensitive to instability phenomena, such as flexural, torsional and lateral-torsional buckling (a section is devoted to composite beams); the design of connections and joints executed by bolting or welding, including beam to column connections in frame structures; and alternative configurations to be considered during the conceptual design phase for various types of single or multi-storey buildings, and the design of crane supporting beams. In addition, the fabrication and erection procedures, as well as the related quality requirements and the quality control methods are extensively discussed (including the procedures for bolting, welding and surface protection). The book is supplemented by more than fifty numerical examples that explain in detail the appropriate procedures to deal with each particular problem in the design of steel structures in accordance with Eurocodes. The book is an ideal learning resource for students of structural engineering, as well as a valuable reference for practicing engineers who perform designs on basis of Eurocodes.


Ioannis Vayas is professor and director of the Institute of Steel Structures at the National Technical University of Athens, Greece. He has been involved in research, national and European codification, and consultancy on steel structures for over 40 years.


George J. Ioannidis is professor emeritus of the National Technical University of Athens, Greece, where he was teaching the courses of steel structures for many years. He is the structural designer of numerous buildings and other civil engineering structures made from steel or reinforced concrete.


In the Eurocode series of European standards (EN) related to construction, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures (abbreviated EN 1993 or, informally, EC 3) describes how to design of steel structures, using the limit state design philosophy.


EN 1993-1-2 deals with the design of steel structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and it has to be used in conjunction with EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1991-1-2. This part only identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design. EN 1993-1-2 deals only with passive methods of fire protection.


EN 1993-1-3 gives design requirements for cold-formed thin gauge members and sheeting. It applies to cold-formed steel products made from coated or uncoated thin gauge hot or cold rolled sheet or strip, that have been cold-formed by such processes as cold-rolled forming or press-braking. It may also be used for the design of profiled steel sheeting for composite steel and concrete slabs at the construction stage, see EN 1994. The execution of steel structures made of cold-formed thin gauge members and sheeting is covered in EN 1090.


EN 1993-1-8 gives design methods for the design of joints subject to predominantly static loading using steel grades S235, S275, S355 and S460. More specifically, it gives detailed application rules to determine the static design resistances of uniplanar and multiplanar joints in lattice structures composed of circular, square or rectangular hollow sections, and of uniplanar joints in lattice structures composed of combinations of hollow sections with open sections (space frames and trusses).


EN 1993-1-11 gives design rules for structures with tension components made of steel which due to their connections are adjustable and replaceable. These components due to their adjustability and replaceability properties are mostly pre-fabricated delivered on-site and installed into the structure as a whole. Non adjustable and replaceable components are out of the scope of EN 1993-1-11.


EN 1993-2 gives a general basis for the structural design of steel bridges and steel parts of composite bridges. It gives provisions that supplement, modify or supersede the equivalent provisions given in the various parts of EN 1993-1. This standard is concerned only with the resistance, serviceability and durability of bridge structures. Other aspects of design are not considered.


EN 1993-3-2 applies to the structural design of vertical steel chimneys of circular or conical section. It covers chimneys that are cantilevered, supported at intermediate levels or guyed. It is concerned only with the requirement for resistance (strength, stability and fatigue) of steel chimneys. The term Chimney is used to refer to:


EN 1993-4-1 provides principles and application rules for the structural design of steel silos of circular or rectangular plan-form, being free standing or supported and is concerned only with the requirements for resistance and stability of steel silos.


EN 1993-5 gives design rules for steel sheet piling and bearing piles to supplement the generic rules in EN 1993-1 and is intended to be used with Eurocodes EN 1990 - Basis of design, EN 1991 - Actions on structures and EN 1997-1 for Geotechnical Design.


EN 1993-6 gives principles and application rules for the structural design of crane runaway beams and other crane supporting structures including columns and other member fabricated from steel. This part is intended to be used with Eurocode EN 1991-1 and it covers overhead crane runaways inside buildings and outdoor overhead crane runaways.


The Eurocodes are a set of structural design standards, developed by CEN (European Committee for Standardisation), to cover the design of all types of structures in steel, concrete, timber, masonry and aluminium. In the UK, they are published by BSI under the designations BS EN 1990 to BS EN 1999; each of these ten Eurocodes is published in several Parts and each Part is accompanied by a National Annex that implements the CEN document and adds certain UK-specific provisions.


The article introduces the parts of EN 1993 (Eurocode 3) that are required when designing a steel framed building and briefly introduces EN 1994 (Eurocode 4), for composite steel and concrete structures, and EN 1992 (Eurocode 2), which covers the design of the concrete elements in composite structures.


The guidance given in a National Annex applies to structures that are to be constructed within that country. National Annexes are likely to differ between countries within Europe. The National Annexes for the country where the structure is to be constructed should always be consulted in the design of a structure.


BS EN 1990[2] can be considered as the 'core' document of the structural Eurocode system as it establishes the principles and requirements for the safety, serviceability and durability of structures. It also describes the basis for structural design and verification. The main sections of BS EN 1990[2] include:


The methods given in BS EN 1991-1-2[9] should be used to determine the thermal and mechanical actions that act on structures exposed to fire. The values of actions determined should be used when carrying out fire engineering design to Part 1-2 of the relevant material Eurocode. The values of actions determined are considered to be accidental actions.


Where structures are exposed to daily and seasonal climatic changes in temperature, the effects of thermal actions should be accounted for in the design. BS EN 1991-1-5[15] gives principles and general rules that should be used to determine the characteristic values of thermal actions.


BS EN 1993-1[33] Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures comprises a set of general rules in twelve parts (BS EN 1993-1-1[20] to BS EN 1993-1-12[27]) for all types of steel structure and additional rules in separate Parts for structures other than buildings, e.g. BS EN 1993-2[28] for bridges. When designing a building structure of rolled sections and plate girders, the following parts of BS EN 1993-1[33] will be required.


SCI has produced a series of guides covering the application of Eurocode 3, as well as an Introduction (SCI P361) and a Concise Guide (SCI P362). These cover all the essential rules for steel building design in accordance with the UK National Annexes.


The rules in BS EN 1993-1-1[20] relate to structural steel grades S235 to S460 in accordance with BS EN 10025[35], BS EN 10210[36] or BS EN 10219[37] and thus cover all the structural steels likely to be used in buildings. In exceptional circumstances, components might use higher strength grades; BS EN 1993-1-12[27] gives guidance on the use of higher strength steels. For the design of stainless steel components and structures, reference should be made to BS EN 1993-1-4[23].


BS EN 1993-1-8[25] gives guidance for the design of joints subject to predominantly static loading. The steel grades covered are S235, S275, S355 and S460. BS EN 1993-1-8[25] uses the so-called component model to identify the resistance of each component making up a joint. Consideration of each of these resistances allows the joint resistance to be identified. 041b061a72


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